References Introduction The published work on smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation, together with descriptive examinations of the trends and themes of cigarette marketing, has provided insights into why women start to smoke and why they continue.
Numerous scholars e. Research on the social, cultural, and personal factors that influence women's smoking has been based on the social and psychological theory of the past several decades, and this research has burgeoned in recent years. Because smoking initiation among, maintenance and cessation among, and tobacco marketing to women have been studied by investigators using a variety of disciplinary perspectives and approaches, no single organizing framework exists for addressing the question of why women smoke.
The research has shown that like most behaviors, tobacco use or nonuse from a complex mix of influences that range from factors that are directly tied to tobacco use e. Factors Influencing Initiation of Smoking Overview of Studies Examined Nearly all first use of tobacco occurs before high school graduation, and because nicotine is Online sex webcams Decatur want to go wine tasting this weekend, adolescents who smoke regularly are likely to become adult smokers U.
Research on smoking initiation has, therefore, focused on adolescents and has been informed by a wealth of behavioral studies. Tall blond Queenscliff sq
Predictors of use of tobacco and other substances Conrad et al. Many efforts have been made to provide either a theoretical basis or an integrated framework for examining influences on smoking initiation.
As a step toward an integrated approach, Petraitis and colleagues suggested that factors affecting tobacco use can be classified along two dimensions-type of influence and level of influence. These authors suggested that three distinct types of influence underlie existing theories of tobacco use-social, cultural, and personal.
Social influences include the characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of the persons who make up the more intimate support system of adolescents, such as family and friends. Cultural influences include the practices and norms of the broader social environment of adolescents, such as the community, neighborhood, and school. Personal influences include individual biological characteristics, personality traits, affective states, and behavioral Women seeking casual sex Arlington Tennessee. For each type of influence, three levels of influence-ultimate, distal, and proximal-have been defined by work in evolutionary biology Alcockcognitive science Massaroand personality theory Marshall McKinlay and Marceau ab have emphasized the importance of a broad new integration of approaches and Sweet wife seeking sex tonight Sebring explanations.
The levels of influence affect the nature and strength of the type Lonely lady looking real sex Sterling Heights Michigan influence. Ultimate influences are broad, exogenous factors that gradually direct persons toward a behavior but are not strongly predictive. Distal influences are intermediate or indirect factors that may be more predictive.
Proximal influences, which are the most immediate precursors of a behavior, are most predictive.
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The study of social, cultural, and personal domains among adolescents and the various levels of influence has undergone considerable theoretical development.
This review of smoking initiation Adult searching online dating Winston-Salem more than studies in which tobacco use was an outcome variable. Selected characteristics and major gender-specific findings of the longitudinal studies are shown in Table 4.
Table Table 4. Longitudinal studies with gender-specific findings on beliefs, experiences, and behaviors related to smoking Bbw sex winnipeg. Many of the predictor variables were not defined comparably across studies.
Even variables with the same labels may have actually been assessed with different measures. For example, some researchers who studied "school bonding" used attitudinal measures e.
Many studies also examined gender-specific differences in risk factors that Adult personals stockbridge wisconsin the frequency or amount of cigarette smoking, not just the initiation of smoking Kellam et al.
Since the early s, noncommercial or social sources other minors, parents, older friends have also been studied Cummings et al.
Evidence suggested, however, that much of the tobacco provided by minors to other minors was initially purchased from commercial sources by the adolescent donor Wolfson et al. Some of these self-report surveys have found that adolescent girls may be less likely than Kinky sex date in Gully MN. Swingers, kinkycouples sex. to report usually purchasing their own cigarettes CDC b ; Kann et al.
Additionally, from the Memphis Health Project Robinson and Klesges indicated that girls were less likely than boys to view cigarettes as affordable and easy to obtain. Field research concerning minors' access began in the late s and has generally concentrated on assessing rates of illegal sales of tobacco to minors from retail stores during compliance checks in which underage youth attempt to purchase tobacco products Transexual escorts in manteca california et al.
Compliance check studies in which both girls and boys participated generally found that retailers were more likely to sell cigarettes to girls than to boys of the same age Forster and Wolfson Pricing of Tobacco Products Although considerable research has been Housewives looking casual sex McNeal Arizona on the effect of price on smoking among smokers Wasserman et al.
Lewit and Coate used cross-sectional survey data and found that a price increase appeared Sex now lathrop sluts affect the decision to become a smoker rather than the decision to smoke less frequently. They also found that the smoking behavior among young adults 20 through 25 years old was more sensitive to price changes than that among older persons and that male smokers, particularly those aged 20 through 35 years, were quite responsive to price, whereas female smokers were essentially unaffected by price.
Chaloupkaab also found that women were much less responsive to price than were men, but, in east glastonbury ct bi horny wives with the findings of Lewit and CoateChaloupka found that adolescents and young adults aged 17 through 24 years were less responsive to price than were older age groups. In a CDC study, data analyzed from 14 years of the National Health Interview Survey showed that a percent increase in price led to a 2.
Thus, females were less responsive to price, as other studies have also. Mullahy found that both the decision to smoke and the quantity of cigarettes consumed by smokers were negatively related to cigarette prices among both men and women.
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Bloxom woman sex chat As in the Lewit and Coate study, Mullahy found that cigarette prices had a greater effect on the decision to smoke than they did on cigarette consumption. Similarly, he found that men were somewhat more responsive to price than were women average elasticities of Of the studies that examined price in relation to initiation, two Lewit et al.
Dee and Evans estimated the price elasticity of smoking initiation to be in the range of This finding implied that for every percent increase in the price of cigarettes, a 6. Lewit and colleagues found that a percent increase in price reduced the onset of smoking by 9.
Chaloupka Wives seeking casual sex VA Austinville 24312 whether differences existed in the impact of clean indoor air laws on cigarette demand among women and men.
The for women and men showed dramatic differences in their response to both clean indoor air laws and cigarette prices. Men living in states with clean indoor air laws were found Women fuck for in Vogelherd smoke ificantly less, on average, than their counterparts living in states with no restrictions on smoking. The smoking behavior among women, however, was found to be virtually unaffected by restrictions on cigarette smoking.
Increased cigarette prices were found to lower the average cigarette consumption among men, whereas cigarette prices had no impact on smoking among women.
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Advertising and Promotion of Tobacco Products Defining a self-image is an important developmental task during adolescence French and Perry Attractive images of young smokers displayed in tobacco advertisements are likely to "implant" the idea of initiation of smoking behavior in adolescent minds as a Swingers Personals in Owego to achieve the desired self-image.
Therefore, it is not surprising that adolescents generally notice and respond to messages in tobacco advertising and promotion. A study by Pollay and colleagues found that brand choices among adolescents were ificantly related to cigarette advertising and that the relationship between brand choices and brand advertising was stronger among adolescents than among adults.
Gilpin and Pierce suggested that the tobacco industry's expanded budget for marketing and increased emphasis on marketing tactics that may be particularly pertinent to young people influenced rates of smoking initiation among adolescents.
from the statewide California Tobacco Survey led Evans and associates to conclude that tobacco advertising and marketing may have a stronger effect on smoking initiation among adolescents than does exposure to peers and family members who smoke.
On the basis of a study of 7th and 8th graders, Botvin and colleagues reported that exposure to tobacco advertising was predictive of current smoking status. A study performed in Adult personals stockbridge wisconsin New England showed that one-third of 6th through 12th graders possessed cigarette promotional items e.
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Students who owned such items were 4. One study revealed that ownership of and willingness to use cigarette promotional items were less common among girls than among boys Gilpin et al.
Although advertising is thought to influence smoking initiation, information about differential Meet local singles Hunt Club effects of tobacco advertising and promotion on smoking initiation is limited.
For a more detailed discussion of the relationship between historic trends in tobacco marketing targeted to women and time trends in smoking among girls and young women, see "Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Smoking Initiation by Females" later in this chapter. Parental Hostility, Strictness, and Family Conflict Study on the effect of parental strictness on smoking initiation among adolescents have been conflicting. Some studies found that strictness and Hot women of Lansing Michigan of parents toward their children increased the risk for smoking initiation among adolescent boys e.
However, other studies concluded that perception of parental strictness by adolescent children did not contribute to smoking initiation e.
Biglan and coworkers studied a sample of adolescents at three time intervals. Family conflict at time 1 predicted inadequate parental monitoring at time 2, and inadequate parental monitoring, association with deviant peers, parental smoking, and Syracuse for morning lovin w m smoking at time 2 predicted smoking at time 3. The model was the same for girls and boys, and no ificant differences were found in the path coefficients.
These findings suggested that family conflict influences tobacco use indirectly and that the mechanism among girls and boys is similar. Level of Parental Supervision, Involvement, or Attachment Parents who closely supervise their children know where their children are and monitor what they are doing. of some studies suggested that close supervision deters smoking among adolescents Chassin et al.
This Nsa good 54100 right now might be explained by the finding that girls are generally monitored more closely than are boys Cohen et al.
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One study revealed that authoritative parenting styles influenced children's smoking initiation independently of parental smoking status Jackson et al.
However, other studies showed no link between parental supervision and adolescent smoking e. Parental involvement implies the active participation of parents in their children's lives.
A longitudinal study of fifth and seventh graders found lower rates of smoking initiation among children who reported that their parents spent more time with them and communicated with them more frequently Cohen et Free porn in iowa.
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Sex with Girls Struthers Ohio Girls tended to have better communication with their parents than did boys, but the relationship between interaction with parents and smoking initiation was not reported separately by gender.
In one study, parental involvement in their children's school, religious, and athletic activities decreased the risk for smoking among both girls and boys Krohn et al. In another study, children who perceived their parents as generally unconcerned about their social activities were slightly more likely to increase their smoking over a one-year period Murray et al. The of two other studies suggested, however, that this relationship may exist for boys only Mittelmark et al.
Longitudinal studies have reported that the risk for smoking among adolescents increases as their emotional bonds and sense of attachment to parents weaken Conrad et al.
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Findings in several studies suggested that weak attachment to parents and risk for smoking do not differ by gender Ensminger et al. One study of female college students found that poor father-daughter relationships e. Parental Smoking Parents who smoke are more likely than those who do not to have children who smoke Conrad et al.
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Studies found that children in grades four through six mean age, 11 years were almost three times as likely to Wife wants casual sex Frederick smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days if they lived with an adult smoker Morris et al.
One study found that adolescents whose parents had stopped smoking were about one-third less likely to have ever smoked than were those with parents who still smoked Farkas et al. Several studies reported that girls and boys are equally susceptible to the effects of parental smoking Chassin et al. However, some researchers found differences in receptivity to parental smoking among girls and boys. One study showed that boys were more influenced by parental smoking than were girls Sussman et al.
The effects of maternal smoking may differ among girls and boys. In three studies, maternal smoking tended to have a slightly greater effect on subsequent smoking among girls than among boys Ahlgren et al.
This finding was confirmed in a study of parent-child tri that used independent korean escorts in irvine of smoking status from each member of the domestic group Kandel and Wuunlike the majority of studies, which used the child's report about parents' smoking.
Wife want hot sex Santa Rita and Silva reported that recent smoking cessation among mothers apparently helped to delay and Sweet wife seeking sex tonight Sebring deter smoking among daughters but not among sons. Thus, adolescent girls may be more likely than adolescent boys to model their smoking on their mothers' smoking behavior.
In one study, however, maternal smoking ificantly predicted smoking among sons but not among daughters Skinner et al. Sibling Smoking Woman looking nsa Fowlerton Indiana study reported that smoking among older siblings had little or no influence on smoking among their younger sisters and brothers Ary and Biglanbut other evidence suggested that young siblings are influenced by sibling smoking Swan et al.
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